What is reformation?

Reformation, an equitable remedy that permits a court to reform a contract or deed, is governed by Cal. Civil Code § 3399, which states: “[w]hen, through fraud or mutual mistake of the parties, or a mistake of one party, which the other at the time knew or suspected, a written contract does not truly express the intention of the parties, it may be revised on the application of a party aggrieved, so as to express that intention, so far as it can be done without prejudice to rights acquired by third persons, in good faith and for value.”

“Reformation is proper when the parties come to a true agreement, but by reason of fraud or mistake, that intent is not expressed in the written instrument.” (See Shupe v. Nelson (1967) 254 Cal.App.2d 693, 699.) “The burden is on the party seeking reformation to demonstrate that the true intent of the agreement was something other than what is reflected by the instrument.” (Id. at 700.)

There can be no reformation of a written document to reflect the actual mutual agreement if there was no preceding agreement. (See Lemoge Elec. V. San Mateo County (1956) 46 Cal.2d 659, 663.)

Purpose of Reformation

“The purpose of reformation is to correct a written instrument in order to effectuate a common intention of both parties which was incorrectly reduced to writing. To justify the court in changing the language of the instrument sought to be reformed, it must be established that both parties agreed to do something different from what is expressed in the writing, and the proof upon this point should be clear and convincing.” (Lister v. Sorge (1968) 260 Cal.App.2d 333, 338.)

No Reformation Without a Proper Contract

“If the contract itself is void, as, for example, because it is immoral or because the parties have not agreed on all of its terms and there is, for that reason, no final contract or understanding between them, or because the contract lacks consideration, reformation is impossible, since there is no valid contract to reform.” (Oatman v. Niemeyer (1929) 207 Cal. 424, 426-427.)

“California recognizes the objective theory of contracts (Berman v. Bromberg (1997) 56 Cal.App.4th 936, 948), under which ‘[i]t is the objective intent, as evidenced in words of the contract, rather than the subjective intent of one of the parties, that controls interpretation’” (Titan Group Inc. v. Sonoma Valley County Sanitation Dist. (1985) 164 Cal.App.3rd 1122, 1127.)

Fraud and Reformation

Lane v. Davis (1959) 172 Cal.App.2d 302 is instructive. It holds “[]... fraud which constitutes a ground for reformation consists of the representation that the writing is in conformity with the intended agreement, or that a writing to be made will be in conformity therewith.” (Id. citing 2 Witkin, California Procedure at 1397.) “The fraud alleged in the instant complaint went only to the inducement to enter into the contract and fraud of this character will not warrant reformation for the obvious reason that there is no common intention or understanding between the parties that may be utilized as a standard to which the writing could be reformed.” Id. at 307-08.

Statute of Limitations

“A statute of limitations runs against an action for the reformation of an instrument from the date on which the right to reformation accrues.” (See 54 C.J.S. Limitations of Actions § 310.)

Useful Resources for Reformation

Recent Documents on Reformation

1-25 of 2202 results

CMC /Demurrer / Motion to Strike 10/07/2020 - Demurrer

Superior Court of California County of Kern Bakersfield Department 17 Hearing Date: 10/07/2020 Time: 8:30 AM - 12:00 PM SCHURDEVIN VS KINGSFIELD ET AL ...

CMC /Demurrer / Motion to Strike 10/07/2020 - Case Management Conference

Superior Court of California County of Kern Bakersfield Department 17 Hearing Date: 10/07/2020 Time: 8:30 AM - 12:00 PM SCHURDEVIN VS KINGSFIELD ET AL ...

CMC /Demurrer / Motion to Strike 10/07/2020 - Motion to Strike

Superior Court of California County of Kern Bakersfield Department 17 Hearing Date: 10/07/2020 Time: 8:30 AM - 12:00 PM SCHURDEVIN VS KINGSFIELD ET AL ...

Notice of Demurrer AND DEMURRER TO PLAINTIFF'S FIRST AMENDED COMPLAINT -...

1 Aimee Wong (State Bar No. 179369) [email protected] 2 UDELL WANG LLP 445 South Figueroa Street, Suite 2250 3 Los Angeles, CA 90071 Telephone: (213) 988-7059 4 5 Attorneys for Defendant ALBERTSON’S LLC 6 7 ...

Reply to Opposition TO DEMURRER - Reply to Opposition

1 Aimee Wong (State Bar No. 179369) [email protected] 2 UDELL WANG LLP 445 South Figueroa Street, Suite 2250 3 Los Angeles, CA 90071 Telephone: (213) 988-7059 4 5 Attorneys for Defendant ALBERTSON’S LLC 6 7 ...

Opposition TO DEMURRER - Opposition

SHEPPARD, MULLIN, RICHTER & HAMPTON LLP Including Professional Corporations Bar No. 287188 333 South Hope Street, 43 Los Angeles, California 90071-1422 Telephone: 213.620.1780 Facsimile: 213.620.1398 E mail [email protected]

Notice of Demurrer AND DEMURRER TO PLAINTIFF'S FIRST AMENDED COMPLAINT -...

1 Aimee Wong (State Bar No. 179369) [email protected] 2 UDELL WANG LLP 445 South Figueroa Street, Suite 2250 3 Los Angeles, CA 90071 Telephone: (213) 988-7059 4 5 Attorneys for Defendant ALBERTSON’S LLC 6 7 ...

Request for Judicial Notice

1 Aimee Wong (State Bar No. 179369) [email protected] 2 UDELL WANG LLP 445 South Figueroa Street, Suite 2250 3 Los Angeles, CA 90071 Telephone: (213) 988-7059 4 5 torneys for Defendant ALBERTSON S LLC 6 7 ...

Memorandum Points & Authorities -

1 LAUREL I. HANDLEY (SBN 231249) CHARLES A. CORREIA (SBN 86123) 2 ALDRIDGE PITE, LLP 4375 JUTLAND DRIVE, SUITE 200 3 P.O. BOX 17935 SAN DIEGO, CA 92177-0935 09/03/2020 4 TELEPHONE: (858) 750-7600 FACSIMILE: (619) 590-13...

Memorandum Points & Authorities -

ELECTRONICALLY FILED LAUREL I. HANDLEY (SBN 231249) superior Court of California, DIALA DEBBAS (SBN 312322) County of Placer ALDRIDGE PITE, LLP ...

Judgment Court Default -

LAUREL I.HANDLEY (SBN 231249) DIALA DEBBAS (SBN 312322) ALDRIDGE PITE, LLP 4375 JUTLAND DRIVE, SUITE 200 P.O. BOX 17935 Superior ...

Second Amended Complaint - Amended Complaint

Louis A. Gonzalez, Jr., State Bar No. 157373 [email protected] Zack S. Thompson, State Bar No. 317110 [email protected] weintraub tobin chediak coleman grodin LAW CORPORATION 400 Capitol Mall, 11th Floor Sacramento, CA 95814 Tel: (916) 558-6000 Fax: (916)...

Amended Complaint - 1st - Amended Complaint

SHEPPARD, MULLIN, RICHTER & HAMPTON LLP Including Professional Corporations 333 South Hope Street, 43 Los Angeles, California 90071-1422 Telephone: 213.620.1780 Facsimile: 213.620.1398 E mail [email protected] SUPERIOR COURT OF THE S...

Notice of Motion & Motion FOR LEAVE TO FILE CROSS-COMPLAINT - Motion for...

IMBERLY TATE ENJAMIN OHNSON TATE ERLINER LLP TREET UITE ODESTO ALIFORNIA ELEPHONE ACSIMILE TTORNEYS FOR EFENDANT OTOR ARTS ISTRIBUTO...

COMPENDIUM OF NON-CALIFORNIA AUTHORITIES IN SUPPORT OF MOTION FOR PRELIM...

[email protected] 3150 Porter Drive Palo Alto, CA 94304-1212 Telephone: 650.838.4300 Facsimile: 650.838.4350 San Francisco, CA 94105-3204 Telephone: 415.344.7000 Facsimile: 415.344.7050 [email protected] ...

MEMORANDUM OF POINTS AND AUTHORITIES MEMORANDUM OF POINTS AND AUTHORITIE...

E. Gerard Mannion (State Bar #77287) Wesley M. Lowe (State Bar #111761) Demián I. Oksenendler (State Bar #233416) MANNION LOWE & OKSENENDLER 655 Montgomery Street, Suite 1900 San Francisco, California 94111 Telephone: (415) 733-1050 Facsimile: (415) 434-4810 Attorneys ...

DECLARATION OF FLETCHER C. ALFORD IN SUPPORT OF AUTOMATIC EXTENSION FOR ...

1 MATTHEW S. FOY (SBN: 187238) FLETCHER C. ALFORD (SBN: 152314) 2 MOLLY J. MROWKA (SBN: 190133) GORDON REES SCULLY MANSUKHANI, LLP 3 275 Battery Street, Suite 2000 San Francisco, CA 94111 4 Telephone: (415) 875-3174 Facsimile: (415) ...

Answer/Response (No Fee) - To First Amended Cross-Complaint. atty Pro Per

UF wo N on a 10 rv 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Jeremy Ro In.Pro Pe! P.O. Box San Marti) ‘inske 422 mn, CA 95046 Phone: [408] 693-7092 Email: jr Attorney [email protected] or Plaintiff, and Cross-Defendant: JEREMY ROVINSKE JEREMY ROVINSKE, Plaintiff, vs. 1) MARC E, E. POIRIE . POIRIER, , Trustees of the and ANNE Poirier Family Revocable Trust dated Juni 2) DOES 1 MARC E. PI POIRIER, POIRIER TRUST dat Cros, vs. JEREMY RO} 2 10, 5, inclusive 198...

Motion: Other - Notice of Motion and Motion to Rescind or Reform Settlem...

10 al 12 13 14 is 16 i7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 James Cai (SBN 200189) Brian A. Barnhorst (SBN 130292) Christopher W. Loweth (SBN 201805) SAC Attorneys LLP 1754 Technology Drive, Suite 122 San Jose, California 95110 Telephone: (408) 436-0789 Facsimile: (408) 436-0758 Attomeys for Defendants HADI FARAHANI, SAIDEH DAVOOD ABADI FARAHANI and MAHBOBEH FARAHANI IN THE SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA SANTA CLARA COUNTY HOMAYOUN CAMRAN FARAHANI, Case No.: 18-CV...

Defendants' Case Management Statement - Case Management Conference

CM-110 ATTORNEY OR PARTY WITHOUT ATTORNEY (Name, State Bar number, and address): FOR COURT USE ONLY Gregory M. Finch 091237 : FF __Superior Court of California = Signature Law Group 3400 Bradshaw Road, Ste A-4A | County of Butte | Sacramento, CA 95827 L L TetepHoneno: (916) 857-1100 FAXNO/Optionay: (916) 880-5255 E-MAIL ADDRESS (Optionay: [email protected] E E ATTORNEY FOR (Name): Richard Bringgold, et AL. D D SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA, COUNTY OF Butte 5 Pm TK oe stre...

Defendants Case Management Statement - Case Management Conference

CM-110 ATTORNEY OR PARTY WITHOUT ATTORNEY (Name, State Bar number, and address): FOR COURT USE ONLY Gregory M. Finch 091237 Signature Law Group 3400 Bradshaw Road, Ste A-4A Sacramento, CA 95827 FF __Superior Court of California tetepHoneNo.: (916) 857-1100 FAXNO.(Optionay: (916) 880-5255 E-MAIL ADDRESS (Optionay: [email protected] | ATTORNEY FOR (Name: RiChard Bringgold, et AL. ‘SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA, COUNTY OF Butte streetappress: 1775 Concord Avenue MAILING ADDRESS: ...

Opposition -

06/23/2020 OOSEFIAN Glendale, California 91205 Facsimile: (818) 275-1747 RAQUEL LEMUS VASQUEZ RAQUEL LEMUS VASQUEZ, an ALIFORNIA 9120 ...

2ND AMENDED CROSS COMPLAINT (TRANSACTION ID # 100104287) FILED PER ORDER...

Jason E. Fellner 245364 [email protected] Stephanie Yee [email protected] MURPHY, PEARSON, BRADLEY & FEENEY 88 Kearny Street, 10th Floor San Francisco, CA 94108 Telephone: (415) 788 Facsimile: (415) 393 Attorneys for Defendant: MELVIN LEE David J. Millstein ...

Defendants' Case Management Statement - Case Management Statement

CM-110 ATTORNEY OR PARTY WITHOUT ATTORNEY (Name, State Bar number, and address): FOR COURT USE ONLY Gregory M. Finch 091237 : FF __Superior Court of California = Signature Law Group 3400 Bradshaw Road, Ste A-4A | County of Butte | Sacramento, CA 95827 L L TetepHoneno: (916) 857-1100 FAXNO/Optionay: (916) 880-5255 E-MAIL ADDRESS (Optionay: [email protected] E E ATTORNEY FOR (Name): Richard Bringgold, et AL. D D SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA, COUNTY OF Butte 5 Pm TK oe stre...

DECLARATION OF OWAIS BARI, ESQ IN SUPPORT OF DEFENDANTS EX PARTE APPLICA...

1 Jason E. Fellner - 245364 [email protected] 2 Stephanie Yee - 320861 [email protected] 3 MURPHY, PEARSON, BRADLEY & FEENEY 4 88 Kearny Street, 10th Floor San Francisco, CA 94108-5530 5 Telephone: (415) 788-1900 Facsimile: (415) 393-8087 6 Attorneys for Defendant: ...

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