What is contract formation?

“Contract formation is governed by objective manifestations, not subjective intent of any individual involved.” Roth v. Malson (1998) 67 Cal. App. 4th 552. “The test is ‘what the outward manifestations of consent would lead a reasonable person to believe.’” Id.; see also, Guzman v. Visalia Community Bank (1999) 71 Cal.App.4th 1370, 1376-1377 (“the test of the true meaning of an acceptance or rejection is…what a reasonable person in the position of the parties would have thought it meant”)

A cause of action relating to contract formation addresses the presence or absence of each of the elements of a legally valid contract. The essential elements of a legally valid contract are:

  1. parties capable of contracting,
  2. their consent,
  3. a lawful object, and
  4. a sufficient cause or consideration.

Civ. Code § 1550. Civil Code, section 1640 states that “[w]hen, through fraud, mistake, or accident, a written contract fails to express the real intention of the parties, such intention is to be regarded, and the erroneous parts of the writing disregarded.”

“Fraud, or misrepresentation, may be asserted as an affirmative defense to a breach of contract claim. See Grady vs. Easley (1941) 45 Cal.App.2d 632, 642 (“One who has been induced to enter into a contract by false and fraudulent representations may rescind the contract....”); and Bowmer vs. H. C. Louis, Inc. (1966) 243 Cal.App.2d 501, 503 (“It is well established that a defrauded defendant may set up the fraud as a defense and, in fact, may even recoup his damages by counterclaim in an action brought by the guilty party to the contract”).

“Where one party commits fraud during the contract formation or performance, the injured party may recover in contract and tort.” Harris v. Atlantic Richfield Co. (1993) 14 Cal.App.4th 79, 78; see also Lazar v. Super. Ct. (1996) 12 Cal. 4th 631, 645.

“The rules governing the role of the court in interpreting a written instrument are well established. The interpretation of a contract is a judicial function.” Wolf v. Walt Disney Pictures & Television (2008) 162 Cal.App.4th 1107, 1125-1126.

“In engaging in this function, the trial court ‘give[s] effect to the mutual intention of the parties as it existed' at the time the contract was executed. Ordinarily, the objective intent of the contracting parties is a legal question determined solely by reference to the contract’s terms.” Wolf v. Walt Disney Pictures & Television (2008) 162 Cal.App.4th 1107, 1125-1126. Extrinsic evidence is admissible, however, to interpret an agreement when a material term is ambiguous. Wolf, supra, 162 Cal.App.4th at p. 1126; see also Pacific Gas & Electric Co. v. G.W. Thomas Drayage & Rigging (1968) 69 Cal.2d 33, 39-40

If extrinsic evidence reveals that apparently clear language in the contract is, in fact, “susceptible to more than one reasonable interpretation,” then extrinsic evidence may be used to determine the contracting parties’ objective intent. Id.

Useful Resources for Contract Formation

Recent Documents on Contract Formation

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Opposition to Motion DEFENDANT'S MOTION TO COMPEL ARBITRATION - Oppositi...

Tionna Dolin (SB 299010) Email: [email protected] Daniel Law (SBN 308855) Email: [email protected] TRATEGIC EGAL RACTICES ROFESSIONAL ORPORATION 40 Century Park East, Suite 430 Los Angeles, CA 90067 Telephone: (310) 929 4900 ...

Answer -

William P. Keane (State Bar No. 124756) FILED [email protected] Superior Court of California Erik C. Olson (State Bar No. 260452) County of Placer NN [email protected] Farella Braun ...

Memorandum Points & Authorities -

ELECTRONICALLY FILED superior Court of California, County of Placer 09/22/2020 ...

Reply -

1 LAWRENCE D. MILLER, SBN 77448 09/18/2020 LAW OFFICE OF LAWRENCE D. MILLER 2 Post Office Box 6107 San Mateo, CA 94403 3 Telephone: (650) 592-9151 4 Email: [email protected] 5 Attorney for Plaintiff 6 7 8 ...

Reply in Support of Motion to Transfer Venue - Motion hearings - Predispo

William S. Kronenberg V. Sathienmars KRONENBERG LAW One Kaiser Plaza, Suite 1675 Oakland, CA 94612 Fax: [email protected] [email protected] Attorneys for Defendant HIRSCH CLOSSON, a professional law corporation; and CLIFFORD HIRSCH, individually SUPERI...

Reply in Support of Motion to Transfer Venue - Reply

William S. Kronenberg V. Sathienmars KRONENBERG LAW One Kaiser Plaza, Suite 1675 Oakland, CA 94612 Fax: [email protected] [email protected] Attorneys for Defendant HIRSCH CLOSSON, a professional law corporation; and CLIFFORD HIRSCH, individually SUPERI...

Memorandum Points & Authorities -

ho: Page 16 of92 2020-05-21 13:00:26 PDT 14155209707 From: Facsimile Department FILED BY FAX eye P. Keane (State Bar No. 124756) AL AMEDA COUNTY 1 |) Wil...

Document Other -

& 86/16/2828 12:23 3104073004 PAGE 92/52 FILED BY FAX ALAMEDA COUNTY FARYAN ANDREW AFIFI (SBN 1673...

REPLY TO PLAINTIFF HORATIO WOOLCOTTS OPPOSITION TO DEFENDANTS MOTION TO ...

KELLY E. DUFORD, State Bar No. 295646 [email protected] CHRISTINE A. ROBLES, State Bar No. [email protected] SLATE LAW GROUP 2131 Third Avenue San Diego, CA 92101 Phone: (619) 565 Fax: (619) 354 Attorneys for Defendant CLOUD4IA LLC SUPERI...

Memorandum Points & Authorities -

KNIGHT LAW GROUP LLP 07/13/2020 Steve Mikhov (SBN 224676) [email protected] Amy Morse (SBN 323668) [email protected] 10250 Constellation Blvd., Ste. 2500 Los Angeles, CA ...

Brief Trial -

ELECTRONICALLY FILED superior Court of California, County of Placer ...

MEMORANDUM OF POINTS AND AUTHORITIES IN SUPPORT OF MOTION TO COMPEL ARBI...

DAVID R. BURTT, State Bar No. 201220 [email protected] MOBILITY LEGAL PC 3464 Arivaca Ct. Reno, NV 89511 Telephone: 650-544-8090 Attorneys for Defendants ALEX BECKER, JOHN LOEBER, SHEA MCNAMARA, and APOLLO BROKERS, INC. ...

DECLARATION OF ADRIANNA A. RUBINO IN SUPPORT OF MOTION TO COMPEL ARBITRA...

SACKS, RICKETTS & CASE LLP SUPERIOR COURT FOR THE COUNTY OF SAN FRANCISCO GEORGIA WALKER AND RAY MURILLO, DECLARATION OF ADRIANNA A. DEFENDANT AIRBNB, INC.’S ...

REPLY BY CROSS-DEFENDANT VIRACON IN. TO WEBCOR CONSTRUCTION LP AND 300 S...

PARRIS H. SCHMIDT (SBN 183999) DANIEL J. SMITH (SBN 13 748) BOWMAN AND BROOKE LLP 1741 Technology Drive, Suite 200 San Jose, CA 95110 Telephone No.: (408) 279 5393 csimile No.: (408) 279 5845 Email: [email protected] Email: [email protected] Attorneys for Cross Defe...

DECLARATION OF AMY FISHER IN SUPPORT OF DEFENDANT AIRBNB, INC.S MOTION T...

Amy Fisher (SBN 323936) SACKS, RICKETTS & CASE LLP AIRBNB, INC. SUPERIOR COURT OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA COUNTY OF SAN FRANCISCO JANE DOE; JANE ROE Plaintiffs, vs. SUPPORT OF DEFENDANT AIRBNB, ...

MEMORANDUM OF POINTS AND AUTHORITIES IN SUPPORT OF MOTION TO COMPEL ARBI...

ALAN S. LEVINS, Bar No. 57612 SARAH R. BOXER, Bar No. 322393 LITTLER MENDELSON, P.C. San Francisco, CA 94104 Telephone: (415) 433-1940 Email: [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] Attorneys for Defendant, HEBREW...

OPPOSITION TO DEFENDANTS GREENBOX POS, LLC AND GREENBOX POS MOTION TO CO...

1 COOLEY LLP MATTHEW D. CAPLAN (260388) ([email protected]) 2 DAVID HOUSKA (295918) ([email protected]) RYAN O’HOLLAREN (316478) ([email protected]) 3 101 California Street, 5th Floor San Francisco, CA 94111-5800 4 Telephone: (415) 693-2000 Facsimile: (415) 693-2222 ...

OPPOSITION TO DEFENDANTS' MOTION TO COMPEL ARBITRATION; MEMORANDUM OF PO...

we ON DH FF WN NN NNN DY BP BP BB RP Pe eB Re Ci Ne) Oo a ON 26 27 28 Law of IBIYAN LAW GROUP, F.C. BIBIYAN LAW GROUP, P.C. David D. Bibiyan, Esq. (SBN 287811) [email protected] Diego Aviles, Esq. (SBN 315533) [email protected] Sara Ehsani-Nia, Esq. (SBN 326501) [email protected] 8484 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 500 Beverly Hills, California 90211 Tel: (310) 438-5555; Fax: (310) 300-1705 Attorneys for Plaintiff, JAMES CARAMAZZA, on behalf of himself and all ot...

REPLY IN SUPPORT OF DEFENDANT CALIFORNIA PACIFIC MEDICAL GROUP, INC. D.B...

KESSENICK GAMMA & FREE, LLP MICHAEL A. GAWLEY (State Bar No. 294190) [email protected] lawfirm.com JASON M. ALLEN (State Bar No. 284432) [email protected] lawfirm.com OnePost Street, Suite San Francisco, California 94104 Telephone: 415.362.9400 Facsimile: ...

Answer to Cross-Complaint & POS 5-13-20 - Answer Filed

Oo Om YN AH BF WBN SMe ome ee ee ee RBNRRRBBRHBSEReTVWAAEBEAS MAZAREI LAW GROUP, INC. Tannaz “Tawny” Mazarei [SBN 188993] 18881 Von Karman Ave, Suite 1620 Irvine, California 92612 Phone: (714) 418-5797 Fax: (714) 418-5788 Attorneys for Plaintiff/Cross-Defendants, WILLIAM OPP; FANGNI WU, and WU CON CORP FOR THE SUPERIOR COURT OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA IN THE COUNTY OF FRESNO WILLIAM OPP , an individual, Case No.: 19CECG04662 Plaintiff Assigned for all purposes to: vs. Honorable Kimbe...

Reply to Opposition (to Petition to Compel Arbitration and Motion to Sta...

AD cane 17 18 20 23 24 25 26 27 Alexander F, Giova. » (CSB # 125562) ' ip oonsen 6 2020 “aren A. Bocker (CS. 3764) ‘OVANNIELLO LA *OUP —_S Pointe Drive, Suite > —" 2 Talifornia 92821 Ph: 364-4000 Fax: { 84-4001 service, vgroup.com Attomeys fc ndants: FOLSOM IN\ PRS, L.P., dba EMP] RANCH ALZH. A. ?’S SPECIAL CARE CENTER; FOLSt: @ »OUP, LLC; JERRY ERWIN AS. “% ATES, INC. dba EA SENIOR LIVINL & 2RIAN WLOSKI SUPERIO. URT OF THE STA. 7 CALIFORNIA FOR . “OUNTY OF SACR. ‘TO...

Reply to Opposition (to Petitiion to Compel Arbitration and Motion to St...

ya anauweasw TILED/ENDO®. 1 MAY - 6 2020 cL Alexander F. Giov "lo (CSB # 125562) By: ue | Karen A. Bocker (C. 13764) ny Clerk | “IOVANNIELLO L. *ROUP > Pointe Drive, Suite California 92821 Ph. ') 364-4000 Fax: | 364-4001 service, awgroup.com Attorneys + Sendants: FOLSOMIN ggORS, L.P., dba EMF. RANCH ALZi” A OCR’S SPECIAL CAR. CENTER; FOLS ey ROUP, LLC; JERRY ERWIN A. "ATES, INC. dba IEA SENIOR LIVIN @y, BRIAN \WLOSKI SUPERK YURT OF THE STA © CALIFORNIA FOR COUNTY OF SACh ‘NTO ...

DECLARATION OF SUMY KIM IN SUPPORT OF DEFENDANT CORPORATION OF FINE ARTS...

LEWIS BRISBOIS BISGAARD & SMITH LLP JOSEPH R. LORDAN, SB# 265610 E-Mail: [email protected] JESSICA S. PLINER, SB# 261976 E-Mail: [email protected] SUMY KIM, SB# 290082 E-Mail: [email protected] 2185 N. California Blvd., Suite 300 ...

POINTS AND AUTHORITIES IN SUPPORT OF DEFENDANT MAS MOTION FOR SUMMARY AD...

John R. Brydon (Bar No. 83365) 1 Vicky W. Chan (Bar No. 226923) DEMLER, ARMSTRONG & ROWLAND, LLP 2 101 Montgomery Street, Suite 1800 San Francisco, CA 94104 3 Telephone: (415) 949-1900 Facsimile: (415) 354-8380 4 Email: [email protected] ...

Opposition/Objections - 4/2/20 to Plaintiffs' Motion for Summary Adjudic...

UR wWeN a a BUCHALTER, A Professional Corporation PETER H. BALES (SBN: 251345) MICHAEL L. WACHTELL (SBN: 47218) 55 Second Street, Suite 1700 San Francisco, CA 94105-3493 Telephone: (415) 227-0900 Email: [email protected] Attorneys for Defendants BETHANY LIOU and GOLDEN CALIFORNIA REGIONAL CENTER, LLC SUPERIOR COURT OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA COUNTY OF SANTA CLARA LONG TENG GAO, HUANXI WU, XIAOBO_ | CASE NO. 19CV348624 HUANG, MINGDONG HE, JIAWEN BAO, XIAOLI LU, SHAOIING WANG...

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